### Josephus Problem - Puzzle

There are n persons in a circle, numbered 1 to n. Going around the circle, every second person is removed from the circle, starting with person number 2, 4, and so on. Show that the number of the last person remaining in the circle can be obtained by writing n in binary, then moving the leftmost 1 to the right. So for example, with n = 13 persons (1101 in binary), the last person is number 11 (1011 in binary).

Math at :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josephus_problem

Solution:

In case of 13,
The order in which people die are
xxx0
xx01 {Since last bit of 13 was 1, hence xx01, otherwise it would have been xx11}
x111 {Since secondlast bit of 13 was 0, hence x111, otherwise it would have been x011}
0011 {Since thirdlast bit ....}

So, you would want to be 1011

So, we can see that the solution for a general n is
in the bit representation of n, add a bit 1 at the end and remove the first bit

So, for 1101 -> 1011

For 10,
order of killing is 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 3, 7, 1, 9
So left is 5
1010 -> 0101

For 15,
order of killing is 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 1, 5, 9, 13, 3, 11, 7
1111 -> 1111

For 7,
order of killing is 2, 4, 6, 1, 5, 3
0111 -> 1111?? 0111

For 6,
order of killing is 2, 4, 6, 3, 1
0110 -> 1101?? 0101

So, if the output is >n, we should be making the first bit 0

I suppose.. thats the answer.... :)

1. This answer seems not to be able to generate to every third people get killed. For example, for 27 people, the survivor is number 20
and the base 3 notation for 27 is 1000,
20 is 202, does not seem to be obviously related..

2. Adding more to the solution for generalized N.

For general case,
I am first proving that for N = 2^a + b persons; 2b+1 location person would be last remaining. 0 <= b <(2^a)

First considering when n= 2^a:
In n= 2*a, the starting point will be remaining person.
Eg. 1 as starting point
1,2,3..16 (16 persons)
1,3,5..15 (8 persons)
1,5,9,13 (4 persons)
1,9 (2 persons)
1 (Last persons)

Now we consider the case when n = 2^a + 1:
In n=(2^a) + 1, After first round starting point will change.
Eg. 1 as starting point
1,2,3..17 (17 persons)
1,3,5..17 (9 persons)
3,7,11,15 (4 persons)*
3,11 (2 persons)
3 (Last person)

This removal series generated is series with a starting point and increments (AP, incr=2^iteration)
In the above case of 2^a + 1 people, we can just remove 1 person and result will follow the traits of 2^a.
I.e. in 17 people we can remove No.2 (first removal) to get 2^a people and starting point would be 3.

||ly in case of 2^a + b people we just remove b *alternate* people and person after that would be the starting point (last person remaining.) The location of this person would be 2b+1.

For N = no. of people in circle, can be written as:
N = 2^a + b such that 0 <= b < (2^a)
and last remaining person in 2b+1

For N = 13, N = 2^3 + 5
=> last remaining person is 2*5 +1

In binary for N, removing 1 from MSB will mean subtracting 2^a to get only b.
And to get 2b+1, appending 1 in the end. (one right shift will give 2b and adding 1)

For N = 13, 1101 in binary, removing 1 from MSB will give 5. Meaning we remove 5 persons to get 2^a form.
And location of this last remaining person is 2*5 + 1 (1010 + 1 in binary)